The authors of A Writer’s Reference note that “[r]evising is rarely a one-step process” (Hacker and Somers 19). Editing for surface-level correctness is essential, but it isn’t the only step, and it shouldn’t be the first. Begin instead by re-seeing (or re-visioning) your literacy narrative and considering its focus and organization. Ask these questions:
- Is it a focused narrative rather than an overview of reading or writing experiences?
- Does it include at least one scene?
- Would it benefit from a different organization? If your narrative unfolds chronologically, try beginning in the middle or the end. If it begins in the middle or the end, try reorganizing it chronologically.
Grammar, Punctuation and Mechanics, and Word Choice
The items listed below are the ones that I noted most often in your drafts. Review the ones that are trouble spots for you.
- active verbs/voice, 153
- apostrophes, 275-78
- capitalization, 293-96
- colons and semicolons, 271-73
- commas, 259-71
- end punctuation, 283-84
- hyphens, 291-92
- italics for titles, 301
- lay, lie, 182-83
- like, as, 146
- numbers expressed as words, 299
- paragraph length, 53-54
- pronoun case, 196-97
- sentence fragments, 207-13
- standard idioms, 166
- than, then, 149
- that, which, 149
- there, their, they’re, 149
- to, too, two, 149
- verb agreement with subjects, 171-79
- who’s, whose, 150
- who, which, that, 150
What word, idea, or image in the first paragraph might you return to in the final paragraph? The authors of A Writer’s Reference recommend bringing readers full circle with that strategy (Hacker and Somers 18).
Avoid concluding your narrative with a platitude: a phrase or sentence that’s been uttered so often that it comes across as neither interesting nor thoughtful. For example: It made me the person I am today. Who is that person? Write who that is, rather than the platitude, which tells readers nothing.
Also avoid the phrases “in conclusion,” “to conclude,” “in summary,” and “to sum up.” These can be useful, even welcome, in oral presentations. But readers can see, on the page or the screen, when a short essay is about to end.
The MS Word file that you will submit to Moodle should comply with the format guidelines for MLA (Modern Language Association) manuscripts. A Writer’s Reference includes a sample MLA paper (see pages 427-432). You can use the MS Word file of my literacy narrative, posted in Moodle, as a template. Your literacy narrative will not include a works cited list unless you quote or paraphrase a source.
Remember that in addition to submitting your revision to Moodle, you will publish it as a post on your WordPress blog. Your blog post will omit the first-page information included in your file submitted to Moodle (your name, course, section, instructor’s name, and date). You will include in your blog post an image that documents some part of your writing process away from the screen, such as a photo of your reading notes or a page of your handwritten draft.